htaccess and htpasswd give basic authentication measures with Apache2

How to password protect web sites via .htaccess

SKILL LEVEL: SYSADMIN/ADVANCED – TIME: 5-10 MINS Introduction In this tutorial we are going to show you how to protect a web site, or just a folder within a site, by password protecting it. We will be using the most popular web server, Apache2 for this example, however similar methods can be done with other web servers. The method we will be using is a basic authentication system, however it is easy to set up…

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As much as possible, the Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide scours the net to find the best in guides, tips, tricks and tutorials. This month, we've found the following guides which you'll no doubt find helpful.

Monthly Tutorials: Handy Tutorials for March

As much as possible, the Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide scours the net to find the best in guides, tips, tricks and tutorials. This month, we’ve found the following guides which you’ll no doubt find helpful. Have a look at some of these goodies: How to format storage devices in Linux. A comprehensive but succinct tutorial on using parted and lsblk from the command line to deal with partitioning and formatting disks. [Linux.com]. How to install Owncloud…


Image of a terminal prompt

Pro Tip: For, While and Until Loops

LEVEL: SYSADMIN / TIME: 1-2 min. Here’s some handy quick reference examples to go back to easily if you are needing to use for, while and until loops in your bash shell scripts. This is perfect for bookmarking and coming back to at a later date. I am always forgetting the subtle syntax differences that bash has, compared to other languages I use, for example C, PHP, Python etc. Before I show you the examples,…


Hitman game for linux released

Hitman The Complete First Season for Linux and Mac now available

Hitman is the game that took the games market by storm. The complete first season, released on 31st Jan for PC. Usually Linux is left trailing far behind, or most commonly, not at all. This time, however, this major games series is as up-to-date and ready for fun as it is on any other platform. You can get it from Steam, or via Feral Interactive, who released the Linux port on Feb 16th. There’s also…


Green Recorder Screencaster

Screencast recording with Green Recorder

Ever fancied recording your very own video tutorials like those here at The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide? Well, there’s a new app for that in town that the folks over at OMGUbuntu wholeheartedly recommend. You can download Green Recorder via PPA (Ubuntu Personal Package Archive) by entering the following at your Terminal: sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mhsabbagh/greenproject sudo apt update && sudo apt install green-recorder Packages are also available for Fedora via DNF, as well as Arch…


How to update the default application for web browser, terminal and more - update-alternatives

How to set the default terminal (or window manager, browser, and much more) in Linux

Ever wondered how your Linux system chooses the default Terminal Emulator, web browser, window manager, text editor, particular version of an app (eg, php5 vs 7/python2.7 vs 3)? Wonder no more! Change the default app in /etc/alternatives The folder /etc/alternatives contains all of the ‘alternative’ applications for a particular type of application. For example, my Terminal application of choice is terminator which is the default ‘alternative’, but what if I wanted to change it back…


Using Google Drive via the Ubuntu Control Center

How to use Google Drive, OneDrive, Dropbox, Amazon S3 and more in Linux

Google Drive hasn’t been supported on Linux officially, well, ever…. It’s been possible to use it in the past using third party apps like inSync or the more basic Gdrive. However since version 3.18, the GNOME desktop has inbuilt support for Google Drive ‘files’. We will also be covering a third party tool called RCloneBrowser which supports OneDrive and Dropbox as well as Google Drive, so you can choose whether you’d like to use the new ‘native’…


SuSE Linux, a popular Linux desktop operating system

What is GNOME, KDE, MATE, Unity etc? – Window Managers and Desktop Environments

Desktop Environments. Window Managers. GNOME. MATE. KDE, Unity, XFCE. TWM, i3, AwesomeWM… You’ve probably seen these words thrown about across this, and many other Linux websites that have something to do with Linux desktops. All of these items are Window Managers and some are Desktop Environments. What’s a Window Manager? Put simply, a Window Manager is the system that gives the graphical desktop its look and feel as well as sometimes providing the framework for all…


linux desktop themes. There are literally thousands available to make your desktop look just like you want!

How to theme your Linux Desktop

Are you tired of the way your desktop looks? Those icons and widgets that once seemed so endearing are now looking a bit shabby or dated? Fear not, here’s a quick tip on how to get some nice new eye candy for your favourite desktop! There are literally thousands of themes out there. Themes can comprise wallpapers, icons, widget looks (eg the sliders, mouse pointers, radio buttons and so forth), they also can contain custom…


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FOSS Force Best Desktop Linux Distro 2017

Another year goes by and the ever present ‘This is the year of the Linux Desktop’, statement is true as ever in 2017 as it was in 2007. For the last few years, the FossForce website has been running a vote to poll which its readers perceive to be the best distro for the desktop. At the time of writing, the final round for voting is heating up. The poll shows that elementaryOS is leading…


Skype For Linux (Alpha)

Microsoft get Skyped up about Linux

Back in July, Microsoft announced through their community channel that they had been working on a version of Skype for Linux. This isn’t the first time that Linux has had Skype, but it is the first evidence that Microsoft are giving it at least a little bit of attention. The last available download for Linux was back around 2012. Downloading it now on anything but an old 32-bit system will be all but futile. However, this…


ViM Text Editor 101 Guide

The ViM text editor, Vi Improved, has been around for a very, very long time. However, it remains arguably the most popular text editor amongst Unix users young and old due to it’s speed, ability to adapt to almost any purpose, and the fact that it will be found on any Unix/Linux box anywhere. You can’t say that for nano or even emacs. Suffice it to say, learning how to the ViM a text editor effectively…


sshfs

How To Set Up SSH Keys

About SSH Keys SSH keys provide a more secure way of logging into a virtual private server with SSH than using a password alone. While a password can eventually be cracked with a brute force attack, SSH keys are nearly impossible to decipher by brute force alone. Generating a key pair provides you with two long string of characters: a public and a private key. You can place the public key on any server, and…


Mac Disk Utility

How to put a Linux ISO onto a USB stick and make it bootable on a Mac

So, you’ve got a mac computer and you want to put the ISO you just downloaded onto it. If you’ve used tools like UNetBootin before, then you’ll have found it a nice easy graphical way on a PC. Unfortunately, Mac users have to go through a few more hurdles to get an ISO image onto a USB stick in order to make it boot properly. What are we trying to do here? So, just to…


elementaryOS

Video Guide of how to install elementaryOS (Loki) + Review

ElementaryOS is a really popular Linux distro for new users. It looks and feels like macOS. It’s fast, free and slick. It’s loosely based on Ubuntu (it uses 16.04 at the moment as it’s base, so the software you can download for it will be familiar to most). In this quick article, we’ve got two treats for you; a video tutorial showing you how to install it, as well as a brief intro to the…



A picture of a cheeky peeking cat

Take video screengrabs of your desktop in GIF format with Peek

Review of Peek 0.72 omg Ubuntu and Jason and Noah from the Linux Action show recently reported on a new tool that lets you record a section of your screen and easily export it as a GIF. Peek was built “for the specific use case of recording screen areas, e.g., for easily showing UI features of your own apps or for showing a bug in bug reports,” explains the developer. “It is not a general purpose…


Every messenger app in one app – Is Rambox the answer?

Thanks in part to the proliferation of easy to use, cross platform scripting, or compiler-less languages, we are in a wonderful world where the exact same applications truly can be available on Linux, Windows and Mac. This is making it even easier for people like you to switch to Linux and experience all the great things that have been holding people back. In the many years that the operating system ‘wars’ have been going on,…


What is Docker (and Linux containers?)

A while ago, around the release of the Linux kernel version 3, the concept of namespaces and containerization was introduced through a module called lxc (Linux containers). The idea behind a container is sort of similar to the idea of a virtual machine. For example, with virtualisation, you have a server (the ‘host’ ) running something like KVM or VMware. The machines running under it are called guests. They are fully self-contained computers, running on…



shell prompt image

running a command against every line in a textfile

So, you have a text file like so: file1 file2 .. And you want to run a command on each line of the file (say, chmod 644). Like all things UNIX, there are more than one way to do thing, but here’s the quick and dirty answer: xargs -0 -n 1 chmod 644 < <(tr \\n \\0 <filelist.txt)   So, this will run xargs on the std. input (filelist.txt). -n is max arguments – in…


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Quick tip: Add a user to the sudoers group

Situation: A new user on your server needs to have admin, or ‘root’ user access. Rather than enabling the root account, or giving out the password details to your elevated account, add the new user to the sudoers group, and hey presto – they will get sudo access with their own account and password: usermod -aG sudo <username_of_person_you_want_to_give_root_to>



SimpleHTTPServer with Python

Quick and dirty hacks: one line HTTP Server

Some times you just want to prove a concept by running a web server on a server, or even your desktop somewhere. The problem is, it seems a bit overkill to install a whole web server on a host, just to get a few pages served up, right? Well, as long as your machine has python on it (almost every linux box does these days), you can set up a web server, in one eensy…


shell prompt image

How to get to a service/server which is on an inaccessible network (using SSH tunnels)

In the latest of our ‘just the examples’, imagine you are in a scenario where you want to ssh to a server (or even browse a web page etc) on a server you cannot directly get to. You do, however have access from your box (localhost) to a server (server1) that can connect to that server (let’s call that server2). Here’s how to ssh tunnel that shit! Let’s assume that your username is bob, but the…


adobe creative suite killers in linux

Who needs Adobe Creative Suite? The Free Linux Alternatives!

The Ultimate Linux Creative Suite? If you are a creative type, Adobe Creative Suite, or its component parts, such as Illustrator, PhotoShop and Premiere have been for years known as the tools of the trade. But what if you wanted to break away from the shackles of Adobe’s expensive licensing fees? Adobe have also refused over the years to port CS to Linux, much to the dismay of many creative organisations and individuals. Many of…



The Linux Kernel Virtual Machine Logo

How to setup a KVM server the fast way

This is a very short quick setup on how to get KVM (The Linux Kernel Virtual Machine hypervisor) server up and running. Why KVM? KVM is a hypervisor, just like VmWare ESX, Microsoft’s Hyper-V and XEN. The great thing (as usual) about KVM, is that it’s part of Linux, meaning its free, and it’s performance is excellent. Using it in a production environment as a standalone hypervisor is an excellent choice, has a low host…


How to mount a USB stick as a non-root user with write permission

So you want to use a USB stick or a USB hard drive, and you don’t want to mount it as root every time? Why would you want to do this? It’s a hassle to mount the USB stick using sudo every time – you have to type the root password, and you have to specify all the mount options each time you  mount it. The permissions on a FAT32 USB stick or drive don’t…


The ImageMagick Wizard

Quick Tip: convert images at the command line with ImageMagick

ImageMagick is a very mature tool. It’s been around for donkeys years and it even acts as the silent ‘back end’ to some of the best GUI-based image manipulation software. However, the jewel in ImageMagick’s crown is the tool called ‘convert’. As you can imagine, this tool converts images at the command line. It can do so in many ways, for example, it can resize, change image quality, change formats (eg PNG to JPEG) and…


lnav

View your log files in colour and in an easy to read format

This is a wonderful tutorial from the guys over at lintut.com to show how to navigate your way through log files easily. Log files are notoriously difficult to read because it’s difficult in the sea of information to know what you are looking for. The features of lnav are impressive: Single log view: all log file contents are merged into a single view based on message timestamps. No need to manually correlate timestamps across multiple…


How to Mount Windows or Samba Shares Permanently

This howto describes how to mount Windows CIFS (SMB) shares permanently. The shares might be hosted on a Windows computer/server, or on a Linux/UNIX server running Samba. This document also applies to SMBFS shares, which are similar to CIFS but are deprecated and should be avoided if possible (link). This attribution is based on the original Ubuntu document (link), written by Contributors to the Ubuntu documentation wiki. (This document does not describe how to host…


How to install Linux on a Macintosh computer

So, you’ve got one of those shiny Macbook Pro retinas? ..But you are a Linux fiend, and now you want to rid yourself of the poor mans’ Unix that Apple call Mac OS X? This tutorial is for you! This is an advanced tutorial which works at the command line and can cause irreparable damage to your data. If you are a novice, it is not recommended that you undertake this tutorial. If you do…


Monitoring network bandwidth, CPU and memory effectively

Here is a bunch of handy tips for today that will likely remain in your armoury forever. As a Linux sysadmin it’s sometimes difficult to visualise just what is causing a performance problem. Sure, it’s easy enough to see which process is hogging the CPU with tools like ‘top’ or its fancier brother, htop. When it comes to figuring out the long term load on a machine or understanding how much memory and network bandwidth…


How to use a Mac to create a Linux Live USB Stick and Boot it

Ok, let’s say you are just about to take the plunge and install Linux on your nice shiny Mac but before then you want to test drive how it really works, using a Live distro. There’s a few ways to boot a mac up, firstly there’s the good old CD ROM drive (SuperDrive as you mac fans know it), but guess what? Most of the new MacBook Pro’s etc don’t even have a DVD/CD ROM…


RemoteMessages web browser window at work.

How to use Apple’s iMessage in Linux (sort of)

This tip requires Jailbreaking your iPhone or iPad, so if you don’t want to Jailbreak then look away now. Jailbreaking is a method of expanding the iPhone beyond it’s parameters set by Apple, so you can run lots of extra software on it. If you don’t know how to Jailbreak, there are plenty of guides online on how to do it. Most of them require you either have a Windows VM or real machine, but…


tar.gz icon

How to tar (compress) files up, excluding certain files or directories

If you’ve ever been making a backup of an entire Linux system, or maybe just a number of folders but there were certain folders or files that you didn’t want to have in the backup or zip file, then Look no further than this Quick Tip! First, change to the folder you want to zip, or back up and make sure you have permissions to access all of the files within the folder. For example,…


Using Google Drive from the Linux Command Line

GDrive Gdrive is a command line tool which manages, uploads, downloads, deletes and shares files on Google Drive. You can download the tool from Github at https://github.com/prasmussen/gdrive. Unfortunately it does not support file synchronisation. Installation Download the binary package from the github website and install sudo mv drive /usr/local/bin Alternatively you can install from source code. Next, simply run drive and it will provide you a URL which authenticates you using OAuth. Usage drive [global options] <verb>…


How to use Alpine to use iCloud/GMail email from the command line

Some times you are in an ssh session, administering a machine, it’s a slow link, or it’s just not practical to have a shiny graphical email program up and running. None the less, you need your email. How do you do this? Simple! Just use the Alpine email client. In the below video tutorial you can use this step-by-step instruction to set up Alpine for Apple’s iCloud (aka MobileMe) email service or Google’s Gmail service.


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Review: Download Managers for Linux

Recently I needed to download a bunch of large files from HTTP sources. Downloading via a web browser is notoriously bad at doing this. How many times have you downloaded a large Linux ISO image or a movie file to find out that the download broke at 99%? The purpose of Download managers are two-fold, they speed up your download by downloading multiple segments of a file concurrently, and they will resume any broken downloads…


How to read and write to Windows NTFS drives as any user

So you have a Windows hard drive using the NTFS partition type. The good news is that most Linux distributions these days can read and write to it automatically without as much as a config change. It automatically sees the partition and mounts it That’s great, but what if you have a one-user Linux box and you want every app on your Linux box to be able to use the files on that partition, not…


Multi-Tasking at the command line with screenie

The use of the tool screen is well documented throughout the Internet, however it’s third-party accomplice is not. Screenie is a front-end to screen. Why Do I want to know about this? Using the command line can be done in a few ways – for one, you can work at the Linux console (i.e., not within the X Window Environment, so you are forced to use the virtual consoles – tty/vty 0-9, which can ordinarily…


Using Vim Scripts to determine whether to set 80 chars word wrap

Here’s a little quick tip for those of you out there that use the ViM text editor. The following is from my personal ~/.vimrc file, it is used to set 80 column word wrap. In other words when the cursor gets to the end of a standard 80 column display, it wraps onto a new line. This is great if you use Vi to post emails or to newsgroups. Bad if you write code in…


ScummVM running Kings Quest

How to play classic adventure games on Linux

Were you ever a fan of those retro computer games like Beneath a Steel Sky, Monkey Island, Maniac Mansion and those Sierra Titles like Leisure Suit Larry, Space Quest and Police Quest? Well if you were, you’re in luck! There’s now a dedicated emulator available for Linux (as well as Mac and Windows). What’s best of all is it’s really easy to use and it’s free to download. This article over at TechTinkering shows you ScummVM in…


Dispelling common Linux myths

A lot of people who are either trying out Linux for the first time, or are thinking about using Linux but haven’t yet taken the leap often hear some pretty crazy misconceptions about Linux. Some of these myths are old truths of years gone by (in most cases, more than 10 years) or are completely made up. Whatever the reason for the distortion, I think it’s time we dispelled with some of the hearsay and…


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What is X, XFree, XOrg or X Windows?

What X is Not: X is not a product by Microsoft with the letter X before it. X does not affect the way graphical windows on your screen look X won’t let you browse through files in a graphical manager X is NOT a GUI (Graphical User Interface) X doesen’t sound like it does a lot, does it? Well read on to find out why it’s an essential part of Linux! What X does: X11 (and it’s variants, XOrg,…


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Analysing system performance with ‘Top’

There are literally hundreds of guides on the Internet detailling how to use the ‘top’ command. A very handy command-line tool that has come with UNIX since back in the dark ages, however not all of these guides are directed flatly at the new Linux user. This one won’t go into loads of detail but will give you the basics. Why would I want to run ‘top’ ? Top is a great utility to find out if your Linux machine is running slowly,…


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How to automatically make your Windows drives become available to Linux on startup.

Here’s a handy utility that will save you any technical nastiness. It’ll make your Windows drives (partitions) show up in the Ubuntu file manager so you don’t have to mount them by hand each time you want to access them. 1. Launch the Synaptic Package Manager or the Ubuntu Software Centre. 2. Search for ‘NTFS Configuration Tool’ 3. Install it. 4. Once installed make sure any drive you wish to Auto-mount is unmounted. Do this either…